๐ƒ๐จ๐  ๐ก๐ž๐š๐๐ž๐ ๐Œ๐ž๐ง โ€“ ๐๐š๐ซ๐ญ ๐Ÿ”๐œ โ€“ ๐‚๐ญ๐ž๐ฌ๐ข๐š๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ˆ๐ง๐๐ข๐š

โ€œThey do not live in houses, but in caves. They set out for the chase with bows and spears, and as they are very swift of foot, they pursue and soon overtake their quarry. The women have a bath once a month, the men do not have a bath at all, but only wash their hands. They anoint themselves three times a month with oil made from milk and wipe themselves with skins.

โ€œThe clothes of men and women alike are not skins with the hair on, but skins tanned and very fine. The richest wear linen clothes, but they are few in number. They have no beds, but sleep on leaves or grass. He who possesses the greatest number of sheep is considered the richest, and so in regard to their other possessions. All, both men and women, have tails above their hips, like dogs, but longer and more hairy. They are just, and live longer than any other men, 170, sometimes 200 years.”

#India #ctesias #Siptachora #Photius #Myriobiblon #Kynocephaloi #Cynocephali #dogmen #dogheadedmen

๐ƒ๐จ๐  ๐ก๐ž๐š๐๐ž๐ ๐Œ๐ž๐ง โ€“ ๐๐š๐ซ๐ญ ๐Ÿ”๐š โ€“ ๐‚๐ญ๐ž๐ฌ๐ข๐š๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ˆ๐ง๐๐ข๐š

500 BC โ€“ Dog headed men in India described by Ctesias, a Greek Physician, in his text Indica. Ctesias, Indica Fragment (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 72)

“On these [the Indian] mountains there live men with the head of a dog, whose clothing is the skin of wild beasts. They speak no language, but bark like dogs, and in this manner make themselves understood by each other. Their teeth are larger than those of dogs, their nails like those of these animals, but longer and rounder. They inhabit the mountains as far as the river Indos. Their complexion is swarthy. They are extremely just, like the rest of the Indians with whom they associate. They understand the Indian language but are unable to converse, only barking or making signs with their hands and fingers by way of reply, like the deaf and dumb. They are called by the Indians Kalystrii, in Greek Kynocephaloi (Cynocephali) (Dog-Headed). They live on raw meat and number about 120,000 . . .

#India #ctesias #Siptachora #Photius #Myriobiblon #Kynocephaloi #Cynocephali #dogmen #dogheadedmen

๐ƒ๐จ๐  ๐ก๐ž๐š๐๐ž๐ ๐ฆ๐ž๐ง – ๐๐š๐ซ๐ญ ๐Ÿ“ – ๐‡๐ž๐ซ๐จ๐๐จ๐ญ๐ฎ๐ฌ

500 BC โ€“ Herodotus, Histories 4. 191. 3 (trans. Godley) (Greek historian C5th B.C.) : “For the eastern region of Libya, which the Nomads inhabit, is low-lying and sandy as far as the Triton river; but the land west of this, where the farmers live, is exceedingly mountainous and wooded and full of wild beasts. In that country are the huge snakes and the lions, and the elephants and bears and asps, the horned asses, the Kunokephaloi (Cynocephali) (Dog-Headed) and the Headless Men that have their eyes in their chests, as the Libyans say, and the wild men and women, besides many other creatures not fabulous.”

#herodotus #Cynocephali #dogmen #headlessmen #Libya #dogheadedmen

Dog Headed Men pt 2 – Argonauts in Serbia

There are no accounts of Slavic mythology predating the fragmentation of the Proto-Slavic people into Western, Eastern, and Southern Slavs, with the possible exception of a reference in Jason and the Argonauts to a battle against Dog men in what is speculated to be North Serbia/Southern Hungary.

The next reference is 500 years later, a short note in Herodotusโ€™ Histories written c 800 BCE , mentions a tribe called Neuri/Neuroi in the far north, whose men, Herodotus claims, transform themselves into wolves for several days each year.

Some researchers have interpreted this through the Slavic folk belief in werewolves, whilst others believe that Herodotus actually referred to ancient Slavic carnival festivals, when groups of young men roamed the villages in masks, sometimes referred to as vucari (wolf-humans)a. The identification of “Neuri” with Proto-Slavs remains controversial, however.

Neuri/Neuroi

Eth. NEURI (ฮฮตฯ…ฯฮฟฮฏ), a nomad people of the N. of Europe, whom Herodotus (4.17, 51, 100, 125) places in the centre of the region which now comprises Poland and Lithuania, about the river-basin of the Bug.

They occupied the district (ฯ„แฝดฮฝ ฮฮตฯ…ฯฮฏฮดฮฑ ฮณแฟ†ฮฝ) which lay to the NW. of the lake out of which the Tyras rises, and which still bears the name in Slavonic of Nurskazemja, with its chief town Nur, and a river Nuretz. Some time before the expedition of Dareius, they had been obliged to quit their original seats, on account of a quantity of serpents with which it was infested, and had taken refuge with the Budini in the district about the Bug, which had till then belonged to that people.

Though not of the same origin, in customs they resembled the Scythians, and bore the reputation of being enchanters (ฮณฯŒฮทฯ„ฮตฯ‚), like the โ€œSchamasโ€ among the Siberian nomads of the present day. Once a year–so the Scythians and the Greeks of Olbia told Herodotus–each of them became for a few days a wolf; a legend which still lingers among the people of Volhynia and White Russia.

#neuri #neuroi #dogmen #dogheadedmen #cynocephaly

Dog Headed Men – pt 1 – Ancient Egypt

The word cynocephaly is derived from the Greek ฮบแฟ ฮฝฮฟฮบฮญฯ†แพฐฮปฮฟฮน / kynokephaloi, from kynoโ€“ (combining form of ฮบฯฯ‰ฮฝ kyลn) meaning “dog” and ฮบฮตฯ†ฮฑฮปฮฎ kephalฤ“ meaning “head”. Other greek variations of this concept: แผฉฮผฮนฮบฯ…ฯ‰ฮฝ, แผฉฮผฮนฮบฯ…ฮฝฮตฯ‚, (hemi-, kyรดn), Half-Dogs – ฮšฯ…ฮฝฮฟฯ€ฯฮฟฯƒฮฟฯ€ฮฟฯ‚, ฮšฯ…ฮฝฮฟฯ€ฯฮฟฯƒฯ‰ฯ€ฮฟฮน, (kyรดn, prosรดpos) – Dog-Faced – ฮšฯ…ฮฝฮฑฮผฮฟฮปฮณฮฟฯ‚, ฮšฯ…ฮฝฮฑฮผฮฟฮปฮณฮฟฮน, (kyรดn, molgos), Dog-Milkers.

Cynocephaly was also familiar to the ancient Greeks from representations of Egyptian deities notably

๐€๐ง๐ฎ๐›๐ข๐ฌ (Ancient Greek: แผŒฮฝฮฟฯ…ฮฒฮนฯ‚, Egyptian: jnpw, Coptic: โฒโฒ›โฒŸโฒฉโฒก Anoup the Egyptian god of the dead).

๐ƒ๐ฎ๐š๐ฆ๐ฎ๐ญ๐ž๐Ÿ (Son of Horus, and from the New Kingdom onwards is depicted with the head of a jackal).

๐–๐ž๐ฉ๐ฐ๐š๐ฐ๐ž๐ญ (The opener of the ways, a wolf deity, thus the Greek name of Lycopolis, meaning city of wolves, he also accompanied the Pharaoh on hunts).

To be clear there is very little evidence of correlation between the religious beliefs and practises of ancient Egypt and the Indo European daughter cultures. Any connections would be at such an extreme place in deep time as to be negligible.

However, from an esoteric point of view it is deeply significant that wolf mythology has emerged in various distinct and unrelated cultures, Indo European, Native American, Ancient Egypt African shapeshifters, Indian Vratyas etc. Not just in terms of martial primacy, but also the wolfโ€™s connection with the literal and/or metaphorical hunt. An anthropologist would argue that it is indicative of a recurrent human animistic belief, but a modern esoteric interpretation could be that the spirit of the Wolf Cult is indomitable.

#anubis #duamutef #wepwawet #cynocephali #cynocephali #wolf #wolves #wolfgod #wolfcult #ancientegypt #kemetic #animism

Cunomaglos -Celtic Wolf Lord

Cunomaglos is usually translated as Hound (or Dog) Lord, however a deeper linguistic dive into his name and his Apollonian parallels suggest something quite different.

In ancient times Dogs and wolves were linguistically almost synonymous. Tracing backwards we can see how the Irish word for hound

๐˜ค๐˜ถฬ (see Cรบ Chulainn – Culannโ€™s Hound) derives from the Primitive Irish ๐˜ค๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข, itself from Proto-Celtic *๐˜ฌ๐˜ถฬ„ and ultimately from the theoretical Proto-Indo-European word for dog *๐˜ฌฬ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐฬ„ฬ.

The continental form of lupus, lykos, is rarely found in Celtic, save for the Ulkos coinage in the extinct Lepontic language from Cisalpine Gaul, where it is likely borrowed from the Graeco-Roman.

And then the Nettleton Shrub inscription dating from Roman era Wiltshire in the U.K.:

๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ผ ๐—”๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—น๐—น๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ถ ๐—–๐˜‚๐—ป๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—น๐—ผ ๐—–๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ ๐—œ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ถ ๐—ณ๐—ถ๐—น(โ€ฆ)๐—ถ๐—ฎ ๐˜ƒ(โ€ฆ)๐—ผ๐˜๐˜‚๐—บ ๐˜€(โ€ฆ)๐—ผ๐—น๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐˜ ๐—น(โ€ฆ)๐—ถ๐—ฏ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜€ ๐—บ(โ€ฆ)๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ผ

๐˜›๐˜ฐ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜จ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ˆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ฐ ๐˜Š๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜จ๐˜ญ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด, ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ข, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ข๐˜ถ๐˜จ๐˜ฉ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ด, ๐˜ฑ๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ท๐˜ฐ๐˜ธ, ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ญ๐˜บ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜บ

It seems from this that, Cunomaglus was used as a synonym for a local Britanno-Celtic god that was called Apollo on Latin inscriptions. The dedication above is for or by a woman with a Celtic name.

Apolloโ€™s Wolf connections are well attested and it is highly plausible that the two were perceived as similar deities, making Cunomaglus far more likely to be Lord of Wolves/Wolf Lord.

#Cunomaglus #cunomaglos #nettleton #apollo #lykaios #wolf #Wolflord #cu #Cuna #CรบChulainn #protoindoEuropean #wiltshire

The Indo European Wolf Cult

Striking parallels to the Indo-European wolf cult are to be found in South Caucasian (Kartvelian) culture. A wolf cult occupies a special place in the earliest traditions. The depiction of people in wolf masks is a basic motif of ritual art. Traces of the wolf cult are especially clear in Svan traditions, where as in ancient Indo-European wolves are a symbol of a certain type of social organisation. Moreover, Svan tradition equates the mobility of wolf packs with that of human groups: the organization of wolves is a reflection in nature of human social organisation.

In Old Georgian tradition the significance of the wolf cult is reflected in the names of the rulers of Iberia, which contained Iranian words meaning ‘wolf’, for example the epithet of the Old Georgian king Vakhtang Gorgasala ‘Vakhtang Wolfhead’; the very name Vakhtang (แƒ•แƒแƒฎwแƒขแƒแƒœแƒ’แƒ˜) may be Iranian, from *warx-tang = vษ™hrka-tanลซ– ‘wolf-bodied’ (cf. the Ossetic hero’s name in the Nart epic, Wรฆrxรฆg, from ‘wolf’). The name of ancient Iberia itself, *Vแน›kฤn– = Hyrkaniฤ, goes back to the same Iranian word for ‘wolf’.

As a result of the cultic status of wolves, the original Kartvelian word for ‘wolf’ undergoes taboo and is replaced by borrowings from other languages. Georgian mgel-i, Mingrelian ger-i are probably taken from Armenian (cf. Arm. gayl ‘wolf’); Svan txer ‘wolf’ is obviously connected to Gk. thแธ—r โ€˜wild animal’. Similarly, in Ossetic, where the wolf was an ancient totemic animal and the mythic ancestor of the tribe, the original Indo-European word was tabooed and is preserved only in mythic names. It is replaced by a word of apparent Turkic origin, bฤซrรฆฤŸ/berรฆฤŸ.

The wolf cult plays a special role in the South Caucasus, and many traits of the tradition connected with ritual status of wolves coincide in their essential elements right down to striking details with the ancient Indo-European traditions. The coincidence of this entire complex unites the Indo-European and South Caucasian traditions with a wider circle of mythic conceptions characteristic of a much broader area which extended far to the east.

Excerpted from โ€œ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘‘๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘กโ„Ž๐‘’ ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘‘๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘ ; ๐‘Ž ๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘Ÿ๐‘ข๐‘๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘› ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐ป๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐ด๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™๐‘ฆ๐‘ ๐‘–๐‘  ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘Ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ฟ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘”๐‘ข๐‘ ๐‘”๐‘’ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘Ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ถ๐‘ข๐‘™๐‘ก๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘’โ€ by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov (translated by Johanna Nichols)

Image by ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ถ on deviantart

#Wolf #wolves #indoEuropean #werewolf #wolfcult #linguistics #protoindoeuropean

#แƒฅแƒแƒ แƒ—แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ #gamkrelidze #ivanov #แƒ•แƒแƒฎwแƒขแƒแƒœแƒ’แƒ˜ #Georgia #georgian #ะธั€ะพะฝรฆะฒะทะฐะณ #ะธั€รฆั‚ั‚รฆ #ะดะธะณะพั€รฆะฝั‚ั‚รฆ #ีฐีกีตีฅึ€ีงีถ #armenian #Mingrelian #Megrelian #แƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ’แƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ แƒ˜แƒœแƒ˜แƒœแƒ

Wolves and Yggdrasil

In the Germanic tradition wolves were sacrificed to Odin/Wotan (ร–ld Icelandic โ€œร“รฐinnโ€, Old High German โ€œWuotanโ€, Old English โ€œWลdenโ€), who is associated with the Cosmic Tree; they were hung on ritual pillars called ‘wolf trees’: Old English โ€œwulfheafod-treoโ€ ‘wolf-head tree’, โ€œwaritreoโ€ ‘wolf- criminal tree’, cognate to Old Saxon โ€œwaragtreoโ€ ‘criminal tree’, Old Icelandic โ€œvargtreโ€ ‘wolf tree’.

In addition to such obvious correspondences, there are noteworthy combinations of ritual animals which were unlikely in the ecological context of the historical Germanic tribes: a wild boar and a lion on a Germanic shield from the fourth century B.C. (cf. the same combination in the Anittas text) and even the combination of leopard and lion with boar and bear attested in medieval Germanic tradition in the genre of dreams about wild animals (see Beck 1965:138-45, q.v. for a possible reflex of the same tradition in the Song of Roland). In other Indo-European traditions we find further correspondences both to individual elements of the set of Middle-World animals (especially cattle and hoofed animals such as deer, wild boars, and wild goats) and to the set as a whole.

Excerpted from โ€œ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘‘๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘กโ„Ž๐‘’ ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘‘๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘ ; ๐‘Ž ๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘Ÿ๐‘ข๐‘๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘› ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐ป๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐ด๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™๐‘ฆ๐‘ ๐‘–๐‘  ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘Ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ฟ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘”๐‘ข๐‘ ๐‘”๐‘’ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘Ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ถ๐‘ข๐‘™๐‘ก๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘’โ€ by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov (translated by Johanna Nichols)

Image is by ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ถ on deviantart

#Wolf #wolves #indoEuropean #werewolf #wolfcult #oldicelandic #oldsaxon #oldenglish #oldhighgerman #linguistics #protoindoeuropean #songofroland #wildboar #cattleworship #gamkrelidze #ivanov

Latvian Werewolves

๐—ฉ๐—ถ๐—น๐—ธ๐—ฎ๐—ฐฬŒ, ๐—ฉ๐—ถ๐—น๐—ธ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ, ๐—ฉ๐—ถ๐—น๐—ธ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ถ

Olaus Magnus, (1555) in his ๐ป๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘Ž ๐‘‘๐‘’ ๐บ๐‘’๐‘›๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘๐‘ข๐‘  ‘๐‘†๐‘’๐‘๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘›๐‘ก๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™๐‘–๐‘๐‘ข๐‘ ’ (A Description of the Northern Peoples), mentions:-

“๐˜๐˜ฏ ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ด๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜“๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜“๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜จ๐˜ฉ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ญ๐˜บ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜จ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜บ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ณ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ด ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ณ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜จ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ฏ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜จ๐˜ฉ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ๐˜ด, ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜บ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜บ ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ต, ๐˜บ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฃ๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ด ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด.”

โ€œ๐˜–๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ต ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜•๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜Š๐˜ฉ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต, ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜จ๐˜ฉ๐˜ต, ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข ๐˜ฎ๐˜ถ๐˜ญ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ด๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ข ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต, ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ข๐˜ฎ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜จ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ด ๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ข๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ด๐˜ต ๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ด ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด; ๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ข ๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฃ๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ๐˜ด, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ช๐˜ต ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ, ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ฌ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ณ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ด๐˜ฐ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜บ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ.โ€

โ€œ๐˜›๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ด๐˜ต ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ-๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฑ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฌ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ฐ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ณ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ณ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ถ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด. . . .โ€

โ€œ๐˜‰๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ธ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜“๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜“๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ข ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ. ๐˜ˆ๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ด๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ด, ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ข ๐˜ง๐˜ช๐˜น๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ณ ๐˜ข๐˜จ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ซ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ. ๐˜›๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ, ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ต, ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ฃ๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ด๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ.”

The earliest Latvian werewolf stories hint at a ritual disrobing and transformation.

The werewolf would leave his or her clothing and would be unable to turn back if somebody touched the clothes. There are conflicting reports on what forces they serve. According to one view, they โ€œ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ญ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜จ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ด ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ดโ€.

These raids could also be a distorted oral history of raiding โ€˜mรคnnerbundeโ€™ warrior bands. The protection of sorcerers perhaps suggests guarding a priest class or non-Christian pagan group; an hypothesis even more likely if one considers another older legend of โ€œgoodโ€ Werewolves.

This myth tells of โ€œ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜จ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜จ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅโ€œ who fight sorcerers trying to steal flowers of grains, thus ensuring good harvest. Almost certainly a reference to a now long lost fertility rite.

#Latvia #LeลฃmลVabฤmล #Leลฃmล #LatvijasRepublika #Latvija #Vilkaฤ #vilkati #vilkacis #werewolf

Shapeshifters: A History

Another book for my wish list

“There is something about a shapeshifter–a person who can transform into an animal–that captures our imagination; that causes us to want to howl at the moon, or flit through the night like a bat. Werewolves, vampires, demons, and other weird creatures appeal to our animal nature, our “dark side,” our desire to break free of the bonds of society and proper behavior. Real or imaginary, shapeshifters lurk deep in our psyches and remain formidable cultural icons. The myths, magic, and meaning surrounding shapeshifters are brought vividly to life in John B. Kachuba’s compelling and original cultural history. Rituals in early cultures worldwide seemingly allowed shamans, sorcerers, witches, and wizards to transform at will into animals and back again. Today, there are millions of people who believe that shapeshifters walk among us and may even be world leaders. Featuring a fantastic and ghoulish array of examples from history, literature, film, TV, and computer games, Shapeshifters explores our secret desire to become something other than human.”

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