๐ƒ๐จ๐  ๐ก๐ž๐š๐๐ž๐ ๐Œ๐ž๐ง โ€“ ๐๐š๐ซ๐ญ ๐Ÿ”๐œ โ€“ ๐‚๐ญ๐ž๐ฌ๐ข๐š๐ฌ ๐š๐ง๐ ๐ˆ๐ง๐๐ข๐š

โ€œThey do not live in houses, but in caves. They set out for the chase with bows and spears, and as they are very swift of foot, they pursue and soon overtake their quarry. The women have a bath once a month, the men do not have a bath at all, but only wash their hands. They anoint themselves three times a month with oil made from milk and wipe themselves with skins.

โ€œThe clothes of men and women alike are not skins with the hair on, but skins tanned and very fine. The richest wear linen clothes, but they are few in number. They have no beds, but sleep on leaves or grass. He who possesses the greatest number of sheep is considered the richest, and so in regard to their other possessions. All, both men and women, have tails above their hips, like dogs, but longer and more hairy. They are just, and live longer than any other men, 170, sometimes 200 years.”

#India #ctesias #Siptachora #Photius #Myriobiblon #Kynocephaloi #Cynocephali #dogmen #dogheadedmen

Dog Headed Men pt 2 – Argonauts in Serbia

There are no accounts of Slavic mythology predating the fragmentation of the Proto-Slavic people into Western, Eastern, and Southern Slavs, with the possible exception of a reference in Jason and the Argonauts to a battle against Dog men in what is speculated to be North Serbia/Southern Hungary.

The next reference is 500 years later, a short note in Herodotusโ€™ Histories written c 800 BCE , mentions a tribe called Neuri/Neuroi in the far north, whose men, Herodotus claims, transform themselves into wolves for several days each year.

Some researchers have interpreted this through the Slavic folk belief in werewolves, whilst others believe that Herodotus actually referred to ancient Slavic carnival festivals, when groups of young men roamed the villages in masks, sometimes referred to as vucari (wolf-humans)a. The identification of “Neuri” with Proto-Slavs remains controversial, however.

Neuri/Neuroi

Eth. NEURI (ฮฮตฯ…ฯฮฟฮฏ), a nomad people of the N. of Europe, whom Herodotus (4.17, 51, 100, 125) places in the centre of the region which now comprises Poland and Lithuania, about the river-basin of the Bug.

They occupied the district (ฯ„แฝดฮฝ ฮฮตฯ…ฯฮฏฮดฮฑ ฮณแฟ†ฮฝ) which lay to the NW. of the lake out of which the Tyras rises, and which still bears the name in Slavonic of Nurskazemja, with its chief town Nur, and a river Nuretz. Some time before the expedition of Dareius, they had been obliged to quit their original seats, on account of a quantity of serpents with which it was infested, and had taken refuge with the Budini in the district about the Bug, which had till then belonged to that people.

Though not of the same origin, in customs they resembled the Scythians, and bore the reputation of being enchanters (ฮณฯŒฮทฯ„ฮตฯ‚), like the โ€œSchamasโ€ among the Siberian nomads of the present day. Once a year–so the Scythians and the Greeks of Olbia told Herodotus–each of them became for a few days a wolf; a legend which still lingers among the people of Volhynia and White Russia.

#neuri #neuroi #dogmen #dogheadedmen #cynocephaly

Ancient Irish Wolf Warriors

๐–๐จ๐ฅ๐Ÿ ๐‚๐ฎ๐ฅ๐ญ๐ฌ ๐จ๐Ÿ ๐€๐ง๐œ๐ข๐ž๐ง๐ญ ๐ˆ๐ซ๐ž๐ฅ๐š๐ง๐

The warrior and dogs/wolves are often synonymous in ancient Irish lore. Particularly telling is an ancient Irish term for wolf, โ€œmac tireโ€ (literally translated as โ€œson of the landโ€). It is plausible that this is connected with the even older concept of the adolescent Indo European Wolf Cult – especially as โ€œvagabond warriorโ€ the original meaning of โ€œMac Tireโ€ gradually came to mean โ€œwolf.โ€

In Ancient Ireland, as in Old Norse Culture, it was common for Kings and warriors to have canine aspects to their names. Cรบ Chulainn is perhaps the most well known taking the name โ€œCulainnโ€™s hound,โ€ after killing the smith Culainns guard dog. The Fรญanna were renowned for their hunting hounds.

The Cรณir Anmann (The Fitness of Names) is a late medieval Irish tract where each verse/entry explains the meaning of an epithet associated with a character in early history or mythology. Verse 215 in particular contains a very revealing description

๐˜“๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜จ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜๐˜ขฬ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ช๐˜ด, ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ถ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ด๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ต ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ง๐˜ขฬ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ช.๐˜ฆ. ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ง-๐˜ด๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด. ๐˜๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ข๐˜ง๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ ๐˜ถ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜จ๐˜ฐ, ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ด๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ข๐˜ง๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ค๐˜ถ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด, ๐˜ฌ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฅ๐˜ด. ๐˜ž๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜“๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜จ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜๐˜ขฬ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ช๐˜ณ๐˜ด๐˜ต ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜จ๐˜ฐ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ข ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ง-๐˜ด๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ.

โ€œFรกeladโ€ translates to โ€œwolf-shapeโ€ or โ€œwolfingโ€ and this was also connected to the activity of warrior bands called dรญberga (marauders, brigands) in the Togail Bruidne Da Derga.

๐‚๐จฬ๐ข๐ซ ๐€๐ง๐ฆ๐š๐ง๐ง

http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/fitness_of_names.html

๐“๐จ๐ ๐š๐ข๐ฅ ๐๐ซ๐ฎ๐ข๐๐ง๐ž ๐ƒ๐š ๐ƒ๐ž๐ซ๐ ๐š

https://en.m.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Destruction_of_Dรก_Dergaโ€™s_Hostel

Image adapated from original by ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ถ on deviantart

#Ireland #wolfcult #CรบChulainn #IndoEuropean #TogailBruidneDaDerga #Fรกelad #CรณirAnmann #LaignechFรกelad #dรญberga #mannerbund #mรคnnerbund #mรคnnerbunde

The Indo European Wolf Cult

Striking parallels to the Indo-European wolf cult are to be found in South Caucasian (Kartvelian) culture. A wolf cult occupies a special place in the earliest traditions. The depiction of people in wolf masks is a basic motif of ritual art. Traces of the wolf cult are especially clear in Svan traditions, where as in ancient Indo-European wolves are a symbol of a certain type of social organisation. Moreover, Svan tradition equates the mobility of wolf packs with that of human groups: the organization of wolves is a reflection in nature of human social organisation.

In Old Georgian tradition the significance of the wolf cult is reflected in the names of the rulers of Iberia, which contained Iranian words meaning ‘wolf’, for example the epithet of the Old Georgian king Vakhtang Gorgasala ‘Vakhtang Wolfhead’; the very name Vakhtang (แƒ•แƒแƒฎwแƒขแƒแƒœแƒ’แƒ˜) may be Iranian, from *warx-tang = vษ™hrka-tanลซ– ‘wolf-bodied’ (cf. the Ossetic hero’s name in the Nart epic, Wรฆrxรฆg, from ‘wolf’). The name of ancient Iberia itself, *Vแน›kฤn– = Hyrkaniฤ, goes back to the same Iranian word for ‘wolf’.

As a result of the cultic status of wolves, the original Kartvelian word for ‘wolf’ undergoes taboo and is replaced by borrowings from other languages. Georgian mgel-i, Mingrelian ger-i are probably taken from Armenian (cf. Arm. gayl ‘wolf’); Svan txer ‘wolf’ is obviously connected to Gk. thแธ—r โ€˜wild animal’. Similarly, in Ossetic, where the wolf was an ancient totemic animal and the mythic ancestor of the tribe, the original Indo-European word was tabooed and is preserved only in mythic names. It is replaced by a word of apparent Turkic origin, bฤซrรฆฤŸ/berรฆฤŸ.

The wolf cult plays a special role in the South Caucasus, and many traits of the tradition connected with ritual status of wolves coincide in their essential elements right down to striking details with the ancient Indo-European traditions. The coincidence of this entire complex unites the Indo-European and South Caucasian traditions with a wider circle of mythic conceptions characteristic of a much broader area which extended far to the east.

Excerpted from โ€œ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘‘๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘กโ„Ž๐‘’ ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘‘๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘ ; ๐‘Ž ๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘Ÿ๐‘ข๐‘๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘› ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐ป๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐ด๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™๐‘ฆ๐‘ ๐‘–๐‘  ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘Ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ฟ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘”๐‘ข๐‘ ๐‘”๐‘’ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘Ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ถ๐‘ข๐‘™๐‘ก๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘’โ€ by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov (translated by Johanna Nichols)

Image by ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ถ on deviantart

#Wolf #wolves #indoEuropean #werewolf #wolfcult #linguistics #protoindoeuropean

#แƒฅแƒแƒ แƒ—แƒ•แƒ”แƒšแƒ”แƒ‘แƒ˜ #gamkrelidze #ivanov #แƒ•แƒแƒฎwแƒขแƒแƒœแƒ’แƒ˜ #Georgia #georgian #ะธั€ะพะฝรฆะฒะทะฐะณ #ะธั€รฆั‚ั‚รฆ #ะดะธะณะพั€รฆะฝั‚ั‚รฆ #ีฐีกีตีฅึ€ีงีถ #armenian #Mingrelian #Megrelian #แƒ›แƒแƒ แƒ’แƒแƒšแƒฃแƒ แƒ˜แƒœแƒ˜แƒœแƒ

Wolves and Yggdrasil

In the Germanic tradition wolves were sacrificed to Odin/Wotan (ร–ld Icelandic โ€œร“รฐinnโ€, Old High German โ€œWuotanโ€, Old English โ€œWลdenโ€), who is associated with the Cosmic Tree; they were hung on ritual pillars called ‘wolf trees’: Old English โ€œwulfheafod-treoโ€ ‘wolf-head tree’, โ€œwaritreoโ€ ‘wolf- criminal tree’, cognate to Old Saxon โ€œwaragtreoโ€ ‘criminal tree’, Old Icelandic โ€œvargtreโ€ ‘wolf tree’.

In addition to such obvious correspondences, there are noteworthy combinations of ritual animals which were unlikely in the ecological context of the historical Germanic tribes: a wild boar and a lion on a Germanic shield from the fourth century B.C. (cf. the same combination in the Anittas text) and even the combination of leopard and lion with boar and bear attested in medieval Germanic tradition in the genre of dreams about wild animals (see Beck 1965:138-45, q.v. for a possible reflex of the same tradition in the Song of Roland). In other Indo-European traditions we find further correspondences both to individual elements of the set of Middle-World animals (especially cattle and hoofed animals such as deer, wild boars, and wild goats) and to the set as a whole.

Excerpted from โ€œ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘‘๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘› ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘กโ„Ž๐‘’ ๐ผ๐‘›๐‘‘๐‘œ ๐ธ๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘๐‘’๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘ ; ๐‘Ž ๐‘Ÿ๐‘’๐‘๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘Ÿ๐‘ข๐‘๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘› ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐ป๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘๐‘Ž๐‘™ ๐ด๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™๐‘ฆ๐‘ ๐‘–๐‘  ๐‘œ๐‘“ ๐‘Ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ฟ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘”๐‘ข๐‘ ๐‘”๐‘’ ๐‘Ž๐‘›๐‘‘ ๐‘Ž ๐‘ƒ๐‘Ÿ๐‘œ๐‘ก๐‘œ ๐ถ๐‘ข๐‘™๐‘ก๐‘ข๐‘Ÿ๐‘’โ€ by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov (translated by Johanna Nichols)

Image is by ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ถ on deviantart

#Wolf #wolves #indoEuropean #werewolf #wolfcult #oldicelandic #oldsaxon #oldenglish #oldhighgerman #linguistics #protoindoeuropean #songofroland #wildboar #cattleworship #gamkrelidze #ivanov

Latvian Werewolves

๐—ฉ๐—ถ๐—น๐—ธ๐—ฎ๐—ฐฬŒ, ๐—ฉ๐—ถ๐—น๐—ธ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ, ๐—ฉ๐—ถ๐—น๐—ธ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ถ

Olaus Magnus, (1555) in his ๐ป๐‘–๐‘ ๐‘ก๐‘œ๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘Ž ๐‘‘๐‘’ ๐บ๐‘’๐‘›๐‘ก๐‘–๐‘๐‘ข๐‘  ‘๐‘†๐‘’๐‘๐‘ก๐‘’๐‘›๐‘ก๐‘Ÿ๐‘–๐‘œ๐‘›๐‘Ž๐‘™๐‘–๐‘๐‘ข๐‘ ’ (A Description of the Northern Peoples), mentions:-

“๐˜๐˜ฏ ๐˜—๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ด๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜“๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜“๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜จ๐˜ฉ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ญ๐˜บ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜จ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜บ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ณ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ด ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ณ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜จ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ฏ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜จ๐˜ฉ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ๐˜ด, ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜บ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜บ ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ต, ๐˜บ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฃ๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ด ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด.”

โ€œ๐˜–๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ต ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜•๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜Š๐˜ฉ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต, ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜จ๐˜ฉ๐˜ต, ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข ๐˜ฎ๐˜ถ๐˜ญ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ด๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ข ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต, ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ข๐˜ฎ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜จ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ด ๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ข๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ด๐˜ต ๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ด ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด; ๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ข ๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฃ๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ๐˜ด, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ช๐˜ต ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ, ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ฌ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ณ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ด๐˜ฐ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜บ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ฉ ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ง๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ.โ€

โ€œ๐˜›๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ด๐˜ต ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ-๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ด, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฑ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฌ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ฐ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ณ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ณ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ถ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ด. . . .โ€

โ€œ๐˜‰๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ธ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜“๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜“๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ข, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ข ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ. ๐˜ˆ๐˜ต ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ด๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ด, ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ข ๐˜ง๐˜ช๐˜น๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ณ ๐˜ข๐˜จ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ซ๐˜ถ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ. ๐˜›๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฐ ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ, ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ฆ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ต, ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ฃ๐˜บ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ด ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ด๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฏ.”

The earliest Latvian werewolf stories hint at a ritual disrobing and transformation.

The werewolf would leave his or her clothing and would be unable to turn back if somebody touched the clothes. There are conflicting reports on what forces they serve. According to one view, they โ€œ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ญ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜จ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ด ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ดโ€.

These raids could also be a distorted oral history of raiding โ€˜mรคnnerbundeโ€™ warrior bands. The protection of sorcerers perhaps suggests guarding a priest class or non-Christian pagan group; an hypothesis even more likely if one considers another older legend of โ€œgoodโ€ Werewolves.

This myth tells of โ€œ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜จ๐˜ด ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜จ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅโ€œ who fight sorcerers trying to steal flowers of grains, thus ensuring good harvest. Almost certainly a reference to a now long lost fertility rite.

#Latvia #LeลฃmลVabฤmล #Leลฃmล #LatvijasRepublika #Latvija #Vilkaฤ #vilkati #vilkacis #werewolf

Shapeshifters: A History

Another book for my wish list

“There is something about a shapeshifter–a person who can transform into an animal–that captures our imagination; that causes us to want to howl at the moon, or flit through the night like a bat. Werewolves, vampires, demons, and other weird creatures appeal to our animal nature, our “dark side,” our desire to break free of the bonds of society and proper behavior. Real or imaginary, shapeshifters lurk deep in our psyches and remain formidable cultural icons. The myths, magic, and meaning surrounding shapeshifters are brought vividly to life in John B. Kachuba’s compelling and original cultural history. Rituals in early cultures worldwide seemingly allowed shamans, sorcerers, witches, and wizards to transform at will into animals and back again. Today, there are millions of people who believe that shapeshifters walk among us and may even be world leaders. Featuring a fantastic and ghoulish array of examples from history, literature, film, TV, and computer games, Shapeshifters explores our secret desire to become something other than human.”

Amazon UK

Amazon com

Free Ebook (Origin of The Werewolf Superstition)

The Origin of the Werewolf Superstition is a short book by Caroline Taylor Stewart, first published in 1909.

This short text is available in various online archives, however I have formatted into an easily printable edition.

I have also included English translations of the passages quoted in the notes, which are left untranslated in every other edition.

https://tinyurl.com/y98dbbkj

#werwolf #werewolf #werewolves #nativeamerican #wolf

Ancient Ritual Roles of Wolves

โ€œIn Old Hittite tradition, the wolf plays a special role, functioning as the em- bodiment of sacral qualities. In particular, wolves and wolf packs serve as an image of unity and omniscience. Thus King Hattusilis I (who reigned in the seventeenth century B.C.), addressing his council, urges his warrior subjects to unite ‘like a wolf pack’: รบ-e-it-na-aลก ma-a-an pa-an-gur. Dressing in wolf skins (cf. Hitt. Lรšmeลก UR.BAR.RA ‘wolf people’, i.e. people dressed in wolf skins, KBo XVI 68 I 13; 78 IV 9 et al.) conveys magical power, evidently conferring omniscience on the wearer, and may have been symbolic of a special juridical status. The formula for people turning into wolves, attested in zik-wa UR.BAR.RA-aลก kiลกtat ‘you have turned into a wolf’ of the Hittite Laws (ยง37), resembles Sanskrit vrko hรญ sรกh ‘he is a wolf’, referring to a special juridical status in the wedding ritual of kidnapping the bride (Watkins 1970a).

Hittite wolf's head made of gold, from the Adana Archaeology Museum

โ€œParallels to these Hittite formulas and rituals can be found in a number of other early Indo-European traditions, which testifies to their Proto-Indo-European character and reconstructibility. In ancient Greek tradition, a person ‘becomes a wolf’ (lรบkลi genรฉsthai, Plato: Republic) in connection with a special ritual form of killing. This corresponds exactly to a Germanic formula: in an Old Icelandic peacemaking oath a murderer ‘shall be called a wolf’ (skal svรก vรญรฐa vargr heita): Ivanov 1975.โ€

Excerpted from โ€œIndo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A reconstruction and historical analysis of a proto-language and a proto-culture.โ€ by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov – Trans. J. Nichols. Published by Mouton de Gruyter.

#Hittite #KingHattusilis #Sanskrit #wolfskin #Wolf #Werewolf #Icelandic #oldicelandic #Varg #vargr #indoeuropean #protoindoeuropean #gamkrelidze #Ivanov #anatolia #linguistics

Tsarevitch Ivan, The Firebird and The Gray Wolf

A Russian folk-tale, first collected in the 19th century by Alexander Afanasyev, in his 600 tale collection โ€œNarodnye russkie skaziโ€/ยซะะฐั€ะพะดะฝั‹ะต ั€ัƒััะบะธะต ัะบะฐะทะบะธยป

The eponymous Gray Wolf of the title accompanies, advises and guides the hero, Tsarevitch Ivan. It is a rare occurrence for a wolf to not be the antagonist in a folk-tale, but this story goes even further. When the hero is betrayed and killed by his brothers, the nameless Gray Wolf resurrects him!

โ€œThe Grey Wolf found Ivan’s body and caught two fledgling crows that would have eaten it. Their mother pleaded for them, and the wolf sent her to fetch the water of death, which restored the body, and the water of life, which revived him.โ€

The parallels and connections with Odin, his ravens Hugin and Muninn are intriguing, but it is more likely that the Gray Wolf is the Slavic God ะ’ะพะปะพั / Volos. References to the God are found throughout Eastern Europe and he is linked to โ€œearth, waters, forests and the underworld. He is described as being wooly, hairy, dark and is associated with cattle, harvest, wealth, music, magic and trickery. He is also believed by some researchers to be related to the Indo-European deities Mitra or Perun.โ€

Illustration by Ivan Bilibin

#TsarevitchIvan #ะ˜ะฒะฐฬะฝะฆะฐั€ะตฬะฒะธั‡ #IvanBilibin #AlexanderAfanasyev #ะะฐั€ะพะดะฝั‹ะตั€ัƒััะบะธะตัะบะฐะทะบะธ #wolf #graywolf #ะ’ะพะปะพั #odin #huginmunin #huginmuninn #ะ’ะตะปะตั #Weles #Veles #ะ’ะตะปะตััŠ #ะ’ัะปะตั #Vialies