Борз – The Chechen Wolf

The Wolf is the national animal of the Chechen nation. The symbolic and metaphorical associations of the wolf stretch deep into Chechen history with many positive idiomatic uses of wolf.

Turpalo-Noxchuo the mythical founder of the Chechen people was raised by a wolf-mother or she-wolf, which bares striking parallels to Apollo, and also Romulus and Remus.

In “Chechens a Handbook” Amjad Jaimoukha adds an even more intriguing detail:

According to mythology, god had created sheep for the wolf to enjoy, but man tricked it out of its ‘patrimony’, so it had to resort to ruse and robbery to reclaim its right. The cult of the wolf was widespread in olden times, and the observance of its day, Saturday, afforded immunity from lupine raids on one’s ovine stock.

Vainakh peoples held the belief that the tail and tendons of wolves held magical properties. Wolf teeth and bones crafted into amulets, were hung around the necks of children as a protection from disease, malevolent spirits and evil eyes.

#borz #vainakh #ingush #Nokhchiy #нохчий #noxçiy, #нахчой #naxçoy #Durdzuks #დურძუკები #Kists #ქისტები #КистӀий #turpalo-noxchuo #turpalonoxchuo

Boundaries of Wilderness and Civilisation

This intriguing book by Hans Peter Duerr was a slightly controversial bestseller in its time, but includes a fascinating perspective on Medieval Werewolves.

Duerr posits the theory that those accused of witchcraft, possession and werewolf behaviour in early modern Christianity were actually having hallucinogenic visionary journeys with the aid of a herbal salve.

Although mostly dismissed by anthropologists, its contemporary sales likely had a larger impact on the emerging pagan culture, in a similar same way to Margaret Murray’s 1921 Witch Cult in Western Europe.

The author also readily admits to esoteric practices, in an opening statement that warns the reader not to try and make their own salves.

In the past few years, I have frequently received letters from readers expressing interest in the composition and dose of witches’ salves. I have also found in the American ‘freak’ literature totally irresponsible ‘recipes’ that were praised as ‘tickets’ California-style. I discussed the matter with some nightshade spirits who are friends of mine, and they asked me to transmit the following to the readers of this book:

1 They do not want to be called just for fun or out of craziness. If they feel like striking up a friendship, they will let the respective person know.

2 The tickets they issue are often one-way, singles i.e.: the return part is missing.

This sort of admission is either a positive or negative recommendation depending upon one’s view of the mystical.

Nevertheless the chapter topics alone should prove enticing to those interested in werewolves

  1. Witches’ Salves: for Flying to the Sabbat or into the Trap of the Demon?
  2. From the Lioness of Women to the Night Travellers
  3. The Vagina of the Earth and Venus Mountain
  4. Wild Women and Werewolves
  5. The Bedevilling of the Senses, especially those of Women
  6. Wolves, Death and the Island of Ethnographers
  7. The Upside-down World or ‘Pot in Every Chicken’
  8. A Midsummernight’s Dream?
  9. Fear of Flying
  10. The Half-truths of the Coyote or Castaneda and the Altered States of America
  11. Dreamtime and Dream Journey
  12. Road Bilong Science

Most surprising of all is the notes and bibliography which comprise nearly half the book!

Published in Germany in 1978, Felicitas Goodmans English translation was published in 1985.

Indo European Wolves – 3

“The sign of the wolf (or the wolf-pack) is clear enough in Greek age set confraternities such as the Athenian ejhbeia and the Spartan krupreia the adolescents in these peer- groups prepared for full warriorhood by behaviour that was exactly reversed from the norm: they prowled at night, were hidden and covert in their actions, used trick, trap, stratagem and ambush and all the techniques forbidden to the true adult warrior-hoplite, in his daylight discipline.

“However, these young warriors-in-training eventually would be reintegrated into their societies, while a “wolfish” activity or character, from Hittite times on (but especially well illustrated in the Germanic sources) defined an outlaw, one whose crimes had put him outside society, and who can be hunted like the wolf, i.e., be both “killer” and “to be killed”; cf. Germanic warg. Werewolf or man-wolf activity may not be simply solitary, as shown by a widely-recurring belief in destructive, night-roaming bands or confraternities of lycanthropes who had abjured the laws of society.

“These “secret bands” have also been connected to the German Wilde Jagd or Wutende Heer, legendary affiliates of Death and the Devil, and instances of bloodthirsty and destructive werewolf bands are also known in the Iranian sources and in Baltic and Slavic folklore.”

Excerpted from “Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture” edited by J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams

Image is by Svartvarg on deviantart (deactivated)

Indo European Wolves – 1

*𝗵²/³𝘂̭𝗲́𝗱𝗿̥ (gen. *𝗵²/³𝘂̭𝗲́𝗱𝗻𝗼𝘀) ‘creatures, (wild) animals, wolves’. ref. GI 413 (weit’-n-); Puhvel 3:355]. Old Norse vitnir « *h2/3ṷedni̭os) ‘animal; wolf’, Hittite – huetar (gen. huetnas, pI. huitar) ‘creatures, (wild) animals, wolfpack’. Though only certainly attested in these two stocks, the archaic heteroclitic stem argues strongly for PIE antiquity Probably from *h2ṷed- ‘be alive’, otherwise seen only in Luvian. Possibly belonging here too are certain Slavic words for werewolf: Slav vedanec (- vedomee – vedavee) ‘werewolf’, Ukr vis̆c̆un ‘werewolf’, Old Czech vĕdi (pI.) ‘she-werewolves’, though particularly in Ukrainian this word has been subject to phonological deformation. The agreement of Germanic and Hittite would seem to assure a reconstructed meaning ‘(wild) animal’ but the association with ‘wolf’ is obviously very old (as the ‘wild animal par excellence’?).

Excerpted from “Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture” edited by J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams

Image is “Away” by Sergey Demidov his work here
https://www.deviantart.com/sergeydemidov

𝗙𝗿𝗮𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗯𝘂𝗻𝗱 – 𝗣𝗮𝗿𝘁 𝟭 – 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗳𝗲𝗺𝗮𝗹𝗲 𝗪𝗼𝗹𝗳 𝗖𝘂𝗹𝘁?

There is strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that a female analogue to the männerbund existed…

There is strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that a female analogue to the männerbund existed amongst the Proto-Indo European peoples and continued in their daughter cultures, such as the Ancient Greeks.

The Frauenbund, if it did exist, is unlikely to have been a female warrior group, in the sense of the ritualised adolescence of the early männerbund structure. (Although the Scythians did reputedly have female warriors).

The connection to women and Wolves in the earliest Greek myths suggests a very different identity for this hypothetical Frauenbund.

The recurring aspect of female mythic identity in early Greek myths is that of spells/magic/incantation or some kind mysticism.

It is therefore likely in the Proto indo european era that while adolescent boys were living outside the village and learning war and ritual, adolescent girls were learning the equivalent rituals of medicine/herb-lore.

An education in end-of-life care would also likely have been a core component of this education, given the recurrent Goddesses/death/wolves connection.

The (admittedly circumstantial) evidence for the Frauenbund will be posted on the usual 𝗢𝗳 𝗪𝗼𝗹𝗳 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗠𝗮𝗻 𝗕𝗼𝗼𝗸 social media over the coming days/weeks.

𝐃𝐨𝐠 𝐡𝐞𝐚𝐝𝐞𝐝 𝐌𝐞𝐧 – 𝐏𝐚𝐫𝐭 𝟔𝐜 – 𝐂𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐢𝐚𝐬 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐈𝐧𝐝𝐢𝐚

“They do not live in houses, but in caves. They set out for the chase with bows and spears, and as they are very swift of foot, they pursue and soon overtake their quarry. The women have a bath once a month, the men do not have a bath at all, but only wash their hands. They anoint themselves three times a month with oil made from milk and wipe themselves with skins.

“The clothes of men and women alike are not skins with the hair on, but skins tanned and very fine. The richest wear linen clothes, but they are few in number. They have no beds, but sleep on leaves or grass. He who possesses the greatest number of sheep is considered the richest, and so in regard to their other possessions. All, both men and women, have tails above their hips, like dogs, but longer and more hairy. They are just, and live longer than any other men, 170, sometimes 200 years.”

#India #ctesias #Siptachora #Photius #Myriobiblon #Kynocephaloi #Cynocephali #dogmen #dogheadedmen

Dog Headed Men pt 2 – Argonauts in Serbia

There are no accounts of Slavic mythology predating the fragmentation of the Proto-Slavic people into Western, Eastern, and Southern Slavs, with the possible exception of a reference in Jason and the Argonauts to a battle against Dog men in what is speculated to be North Serbia/Southern Hungary.

The next reference is 500 years later, a short note in Herodotus’ Histories written c 800 BCE , mentions a tribe called Neuri/Neuroi in the far north, whose men, Herodotus claims, transform themselves into wolves for several days each year.

Some researchers have interpreted this through the Slavic folk belief in werewolves, whilst others believe that Herodotus actually referred to ancient Slavic carnival festivals, when groups of young men roamed the villages in masks, sometimes referred to as vucari (wolf-humans)a. The identification of “Neuri” with Proto-Slavs remains controversial, however.

Neuri/Neuroi

Eth. NEURI (Νευροί), a nomad people of the N. of Europe, whom Herodotus (4.17, 51, 100, 125) places in the centre of the region which now comprises Poland and Lithuania, about the river-basin of the Bug.

They occupied the district (τὴν Νευρίδα γῆν) which lay to the NW. of the lake out of which the Tyras rises, and which still bears the name in Slavonic of Nurskazemja, with its chief town Nur, and a river Nuretz. Some time before the expedition of Dareius, they had been obliged to quit their original seats, on account of a quantity of serpents with which it was infested, and had taken refuge with the Budini in the district about the Bug, which had till then belonged to that people.

Though not of the same origin, in customs they resembled the Scythians, and bore the reputation of being enchanters (γόητες), like the “Schamas” among the Siberian nomads of the present day. Once a year–so the Scythians and the Greeks of Olbia told Herodotus–each of them became for a few days a wolf; a legend which still lingers among the people of Volhynia and White Russia.

#neuri #neuroi #dogmen #dogheadedmen #cynocephaly

Ancient Irish Wolf Warriors

𝐖𝐨𝐥𝐟 𝐂𝐮𝐥𝐭𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐀𝐧𝐜𝐢𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐈𝐫𝐞𝐥𝐚𝐧𝐝

The warrior and dogs/wolves are often synonymous in ancient Irish lore. Particularly telling is an ancient Irish term for wolf, “mac tire” (literally translated as “son of the land”). It is plausible that this is connected with the even older concept of the adolescent Indo European Wolf Cult – especially as “vagabond warrior” the original meaning of “Mac Tire” gradually came to mean “wolf.”

In Ancient Ireland, as in Old Norse Culture, it was common for Kings and warriors to have canine aspects to their names. Cú Chulainn is perhaps the most well known taking the name “Culainn’s hound,” after killing the smith Culainns guard dog. The Fíanna were renowned for their hunting hounds.

The Cóir Anmann (The Fitness of Names) is a late medieval Irish tract where each verse/entry explains the meaning of an epithet associated with a character in early history or mythology. Verse 215 in particular contains a very revealing description

𝘓𝘢𝘪𝘨𝘯𝘦𝘤𝘩 𝘍𝘢́𝘦𝘭𝘢𝘥, 𝘵𝘩𝘢𝘵 𝘪𝘴, 𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘮𝘢𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘢𝘵 𝘶𝘴𝘦𝘥 𝘵𝘰 𝘴𝘩𝘪𝘧𝘵 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘰 𝘧𝘢́𝘦𝘭𝘢𝘥, 𝘪.𝘦. 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘧-𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘱𝘦𝘴. 𝘏𝘦 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘩𝘪𝘴 𝘰𝘧𝘧𝘴𝘱𝘳𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘢𝘧𝘵𝘦𝘳 𝘩𝘪𝘮 𝘶𝘴𝘦𝘥 𝘵𝘰 𝘨𝘰, 𝘸𝘩𝘦𝘯𝘦𝘷𝘦𝘳 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘱𝘭𝘦𝘢𝘴𝘦𝘥, 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘰 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘱𝘦𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴, 𝘢𝘯𝘥, 𝘢𝘧𝘵𝘦𝘳 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘤𝘶𝘴𝘵𝘰𝘮 𝘰𝘧 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴, 𝘬𝘪𝘭𝘭 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘥𝘴. 𝘞𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘧𝘰𝘳𝘦 𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘤𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘦𝘥 𝘓𝘢𝘪𝘨𝘯𝘦𝘤𝘩 𝘍𝘢́𝘦𝘭𝘢𝘥, 𝘧𝘰𝘳 𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘧𝘪𝘳𝘴𝘵 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘮 𝘵𝘰 𝘨𝘰 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘰 𝘢 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘧-𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘱𝘦.

“Fáelad” translates to “wolf-shape” or “wolfing” and this was also connected to the activity of warrior bands called díberga (marauders, brigands) in the Togail Bruidne Da Derga.

𝐂𝐨́𝐢𝐫 𝐀𝐧𝐦𝐚𝐧𝐧

http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/fitness_of_names.html

𝐓𝐨𝐠𝐚𝐢𝐥 𝐁𝐫𝐮𝐢𝐝𝐧𝐞 𝐃𝐚 𝐃𝐞𝐫𝐠𝐚

https://en.m.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Destruction_of_Dá_Derga’s_Hostel

Image adapated from original by 𝘀𝗮𝗮𝗴𝗮𝗶 on deviantart

#Ireland #wolfcult #CúChulainn #IndoEuropean #TogailBruidneDaDerga #Fáelad #CóirAnmann #LaignechFáelad #díberga #mannerbund #männerbund #männerbunde

The Indo European Wolf Cult

Striking parallels to the Indo-European wolf cult are to be found in South Caucasian (Kartvelian) culture. A wolf cult occupies a special place in the earliest traditions. The depiction of people in wolf masks is a basic motif of ritual art. Traces of the wolf cult are especially clear in Svan traditions, where as in ancient Indo-European wolves are a symbol of a certain type of social organisation. Moreover, Svan tradition equates the mobility of wolf packs with that of human groups: the organization of wolves is a reflection in nature of human social organisation.

In Old Georgian tradition the significance of the wolf cult is reflected in the names of the rulers of Iberia, which contained Iranian words meaning ‘wolf’, for example the epithet of the Old Georgian king Vakhtang Gorgasala ‘Vakhtang Wolfhead’; the very name Vakhtang (ვახwტანგი) may be Iranian, from *warx-tang = vəhrka-tanū– ‘wolf-bodied’ (cf. the Ossetic hero’s name in the Nart epic, Wærxæg, from ‘wolf’). The name of ancient Iberia itself, *Vṛkān– = Hyrkaniā, goes back to the same Iranian word for ‘wolf’.

As a result of the cultic status of wolves, the original Kartvelian word for ‘wolf’ undergoes taboo and is replaced by borrowings from other languages. Georgian mgel-i, Mingrelian ger-i are probably taken from Armenian (cf. Arm. gayl ‘wolf’); Svan txer ‘wolf’ is obviously connected to Gk. thḗr ‘wild animal’. Similarly, in Ossetic, where the wolf was an ancient totemic animal and the mythic ancestor of the tribe, the original Indo-European word was tabooed and is preserved only in mythic names. It is replaced by a word of apparent Turkic origin, bīræğ/beræğ.

The wolf cult plays a special role in the South Caucasus, and many traits of the tradition connected with ritual status of wolves coincide in their essential elements right down to striking details with the ancient Indo-European traditions. The coincidence of this entire complex unites the Indo-European and South Caucasian traditions with a wider circle of mythic conceptions characteristic of a much broader area which extended far to the east.

Excerpted from “𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝐸𝑢𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝐸𝑢𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑛𝑠; 𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐻𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜 𝐿𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑠𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒” by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov (translated by Johanna Nichols)

Image by 𝘀𝗮𝗮𝗴𝗮𝗶 on deviantart

#Wolf #wolves #indoEuropean #werewolf #wolfcult #linguistics #protoindoeuropean

#ქართველები #gamkrelidze #ivanov #ვახwტანგი #Georgia #georgian #иронæвзаг #ирæттæ #дигорæнттæ #հայերէն #armenian #Mingrelian #Megrelian #მარგალურინინა

Wolves and Yggdrasil

In the Germanic tradition wolves were sacrificed to Odin/Wotan (Öld Icelandic “Óðinn”, Old High German “Wuotan”, Old English “Wōden”), who is associated with the Cosmic Tree; they were hung on ritual pillars called ‘wolf trees’: Old English “wulfheafod-treo” ‘wolf-head tree’, “waritreo” ‘wolf- criminal tree’, cognate to Old Saxon “waragtreo” ‘criminal tree’, Old Icelandic “vargtre” ‘wolf tree’.

In addition to such obvious correspondences, there are noteworthy combinations of ritual animals which were unlikely in the ecological context of the historical Germanic tribes: a wild boar and a lion on a Germanic shield from the fourth century B.C. (cf. the same combination in the Anittas text) and even the combination of leopard and lion with boar and bear attested in medieval Germanic tradition in the genre of dreams about wild animals (see Beck 1965:138-45, q.v. for a possible reflex of the same tradition in the Song of Roland). In other Indo-European traditions we find further correspondences both to individual elements of the set of Middle-World animals (especially cattle and hoofed animals such as deer, wild boars, and wild goats) and to the set as a whole.

Excerpted from “𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝐸𝑢𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝐸𝑢𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑛𝑠; 𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐻𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜 𝐿𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑠𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒” by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov (translated by Johanna Nichols)

Image is by 𝘀𝗮𝗮𝗴𝗮𝗶 on deviantart

#Wolf #wolves #indoEuropean #werewolf #wolfcult #oldicelandic #oldsaxon #oldenglish #oldhighgerman #linguistics #protoindoeuropean #songofroland #wildboar #cattleworship #gamkrelidze #ivanov