Indo European Wolves – 3

“The sign of the wolf (or the wolf-pack) is clear enough in Greek age set confraternities such as the Athenian ejhbeia and the Spartan krupreia the adolescents in these peer- groups prepared for full warriorhood by behaviour that was exactly reversed from the norm: they prowled at night, were hidden and covert in their actions, used trick, trap, stratagem and ambush and all the techniques forbidden to the true adult warrior-hoplite, in his daylight discipline.

“However, these young warriors-in-training eventually would be reintegrated into their societies, while a “wolfish” activity or character, from Hittite times on (but especially well illustrated in the Germanic sources) defined an outlaw, one whose crimes had put him outside society, and who can be hunted like the wolf, i.e., be both “killer” and “to be killed”; cf. Germanic warg. Werewolf or man-wolf activity may not be simply solitary, as shown by a widely-recurring belief in destructive, night-roaming bands or confraternities of lycanthropes who had abjured the laws of society.

“These “secret bands” have also been connected to the German Wilde Jagd or Wutende Heer, legendary affiliates of Death and the Devil, and instances of bloodthirsty and destructive werewolf bands are also known in the Iranian sources and in Baltic and Slavic folklore.”

Excerpted from “Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture” edited by J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams

Image is by Svartvarg on deviantart (deactivated)

Indo European Wolves – 1

*𝗵²/³𝘂̭𝗲́𝗱𝗿̥ (gen. *𝗵²/³𝘂̭𝗲́𝗱𝗻𝗼𝘀) ‘creatures, (wild) animals, wolves’. ref. GI 413 (weit’-n-); Puhvel 3:355]. Old Norse vitnir « *h2/3ṷedni̭os) ‘animal; wolf’, Hittite – huetar (gen. huetnas, pI. huitar) ‘creatures, (wild) animals, wolfpack’. Though only certainly attested in these two stocks, the archaic heteroclitic stem argues strongly for PIE antiquity Probably from *h2ṷed- ‘be alive’, otherwise seen only in Luvian. Possibly belonging here too are certain Slavic words for werewolf: Slav vedanec (- vedomee – vedavee) ‘werewolf’, Ukr vis̆c̆un ‘werewolf’, Old Czech vĕdi (pI.) ‘she-werewolves’, though particularly in Ukrainian this word has been subject to phonological deformation. The agreement of Germanic and Hittite would seem to assure a reconstructed meaning ‘(wild) animal’ but the association with ‘wolf’ is obviously very old (as the ‘wild animal par excellence’?).

Excerpted from “Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture” edited by J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams

Image is “Away” by Sergey Demidov his work here
https://www.deviantart.com/sergeydemidov

𝗙𝗿𝗮𝘂𝗲𝗻𝗯𝘂𝗻𝗱 – 𝗣𝗮𝗿𝘁 𝟭 – 𝗧𝗵𝗲 𝗳𝗲𝗺𝗮𝗹𝗲 𝗪𝗼𝗹𝗳 𝗖𝘂𝗹𝘁?

There is strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that a female analogue to the männerbund existed…

There is strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that a female analogue to the männerbund existed amongst the Proto-Indo European peoples and continued in their daughter cultures, such as the Ancient Greeks.

The Frauenbund, if it did exist, is unlikely to have been a female warrior group, in the sense of the ritualised adolescence of the early männerbund structure. (Although the Scythians did reputedly have female warriors).

The connection to women and Wolves in the earliest Greek myths suggests a very different identity for this hypothetical Frauenbund.

The recurring aspect of female mythic identity in early Greek myths is that of spells/magic/incantation or some kind mysticism.

It is therefore likely in the Proto indo european era that while adolescent boys were living outside the village and learning war and ritual, adolescent girls were learning the equivalent rituals of medicine/herb-lore.

An education in end-of-life care would also likely have been a core component of this education, given the recurrent Goddesses/death/wolves connection.

The (admittedly circumstantial) evidence for the Frauenbund will be posted on the usual 𝗢𝗳 𝗪𝗼𝗹𝗳 𝗮𝗻𝗱 𝗠𝗮𝗻 𝗕𝗼𝗼𝗸 social media over the coming days/weeks.

Dog Headed Men – Part 7 – Megasthenes

Μεγασθένης was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat, Indian ethnographer and explorer…

Mεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period. He described India in his book Indika, which is now lost, but has been partially reconstructed from the writings of the later authors.

Megasthenes describes mountain dwelling, dog-headed people, in India, who spoke in barks, wore the skins of wild animals and lived by hunting.

𝐃𝐨𝐠 𝐡𝐞𝐚𝐝𝐞𝐝 𝐌𝐞𝐧 – 𝐏𝐚𝐫𝐭 𝟔𝐚 – 𝐂𝐭𝐞𝐬𝐢𝐚𝐬 𝐚𝐧𝐝 𝐈𝐧𝐝𝐢𝐚

500 BC – Dog headed men in India described by Ctesias, a Greek Physician, in his text Indica. Ctesias, Indica Fragment (summary from Photius, Myriobiblon 72)

“On these [the Indian] mountains there live men with the head of a dog, whose clothing is the skin of wild beasts. They speak no language, but bark like dogs, and in this manner make themselves understood by each other. Their teeth are larger than those of dogs, their nails like those of these animals, but longer and rounder. They inhabit the mountains as far as the river Indos. Their complexion is swarthy. They are extremely just, like the rest of the Indians with whom they associate. They understand the Indian language but are unable to converse, only barking or making signs with their hands and fingers by way of reply, like the deaf and dumb. They are called by the Indians Kalystrii, in Greek Kynocephaloi (Cynocephali) (Dog-Headed). They live on raw meat and number about 120,000 . . .

#India #ctesias #Siptachora #Photius #Myriobiblon #Kynocephaloi #Cynocephali #dogmen #dogheadedmen

Dog Headed Men – Pt 3 – The Neuri Further sources

Herodotus: Para 105.

[1] Νευροὶ δὲ νόμοισι μὲν χρέωνται Σκυθικοῖσι, γενεῇ δὲ μιῇ πρότερον σφέας τῆς Δαρείου στρατηλασίης κατέλαβε ἐκλιπεῖν τὴν χώρην πᾶσαν ὑπὸ ὀφίων· ὄφιας γάρ σφι πολλοὺς μὲν ἡ χώρη ἀνέφαινε, οἱ δὲ πλεῦνες ἄνωθέν σφι ἐκ τῶν ἐρήμων ἐπέπεσον, ἐς ὃ πιεζόμενοι οἴκησαν μετὰ Βουδίνων τὴν ἑωυτῶν ἐκλιπόντες. κινδυνεύουσι δὲ οἱ ἄνθρωποι οὗτοι γόητες εἶναι.

[1] The Neuroi practise the Scythian customs: and one generation before the expedition of Dareios it so befell them that they were forced to quit their land altogether by reason of serpents: for their land produced serpents in vast numbers, and they fell upon them in still larger numbers from the desert country above their borders; until at last being hard pressed they left their own land and settled among the Budinoi.

[2] λέγονται γὰρ ὑπὸ Σκυθέων καὶ Ἑλλήνων τῶν ἐν τῇ Σκυθικῇ κατοικημένων ὡς ἔτεος ἑκάστου ἅπαξ τῶν Νευρῶν ἕκαστος λύκος γίνεται ἡμέρας ὀλίγας καὶ αὖτις ὀπίσω ἐς τὠυτὸ κατίσταται. ἐμὲ μέν νυν ταῦτα λέγοντες οὐ πείθουσι, λέγουσι δὲ οὐδὲν ἧσσον, καὶ ὀμνῦσι δὲ λέγοντες.

[2] These men it would seem are wizards; for it is said of them by the Scythians and by the Hellenes who are settled in the Scythian land that once in every year each of the Neuroi becomes a wolf for a few days and then returns again to his original form. For my part I do not believe them when they say this, but they say it nevertheless, and swear it moreover.

Pomponius Mela (De Chrorographia Book II.14) 44 CE (repeats this story from Herodotus). “There is a preordained time for each of the Neuri at which, if they so desire, they metamorphose into wolves and back into who they were.”

Ptolemy (Ναύαροι, 3.5.25) “The Sarmatian Navari are the same as the Neuri.”

Schafarik (Slav. Alt. vol. i. pp. 194–199) suggests the Neuri are of Wendish or Servian stock.

#neuri #neuroi #herodotus #ptolemy #dogmen #cynocephaly #pomponiusmela #wend #servian #wendish

Dog Headed Men pt 2 – Argonauts in Serbia

There are no accounts of Slavic mythology predating the fragmentation of the Proto-Slavic people into Western, Eastern, and Southern Slavs, with the possible exception of a reference in Jason and the Argonauts to a battle against Dog men in what is speculated to be North Serbia/Southern Hungary.

The next reference is 500 years later, a short note in Herodotus’ Histories written c 800 BCE , mentions a tribe called Neuri/Neuroi in the far north, whose men, Herodotus claims, transform themselves into wolves for several days each year.

Some researchers have interpreted this through the Slavic folk belief in werewolves, whilst others believe that Herodotus actually referred to ancient Slavic carnival festivals, when groups of young men roamed the villages in masks, sometimes referred to as vucari (wolf-humans)a. The identification of “Neuri” with Proto-Slavs remains controversial, however.

Neuri/Neuroi

Eth. NEURI (Νευροί), a nomad people of the N. of Europe, whom Herodotus (4.17, 51, 100, 125) places in the centre of the region which now comprises Poland and Lithuania, about the river-basin of the Bug.

They occupied the district (τὴν Νευρίδα γῆν) which lay to the NW. of the lake out of which the Tyras rises, and which still bears the name in Slavonic of Nurskazemja, with its chief town Nur, and a river Nuretz. Some time before the expedition of Dareius, they had been obliged to quit their original seats, on account of a quantity of serpents with which it was infested, and had taken refuge with the Budini in the district about the Bug, which had till then belonged to that people.

Though not of the same origin, in customs they resembled the Scythians, and bore the reputation of being enchanters (γόητες), like the “Schamas” among the Siberian nomads of the present day. Once a year–so the Scythians and the Greeks of Olbia told Herodotus–each of them became for a few days a wolf; a legend which still lingers among the people of Volhynia and White Russia.

#neuri #neuroi #dogmen #dogheadedmen #cynocephaly

Dog Headed Men – pt 1 – Ancient Egypt

The word cynocephaly is derived from the Greek κῠνοκέφᾰλοι / kynokephaloi, from kyno– (combining form of κύων kyōn) meaning “dog” and κεφαλή kephalē meaning “head”. Other greek variations of this concept: Ἡμικυων, Ἡμικυνες, (hemi-, kyôn), Half-Dogs – Κυνοπροσοπος, Κυνοπροσωποι, (kyôn, prosôpos) – Dog-Faced – Κυναμολγος, Κυναμολγοι, (kyôn, molgos), Dog-Milkers.

Cynocephaly was also familiar to the ancient Greeks from representations of Egyptian deities notably

𝐀𝐧𝐮𝐛𝐢𝐬 (Ancient Greek: Ἄνουβις, Egyptian: jnpw, Coptic: ⲁⲛⲟⲩⲡ Anoup the Egyptian god of the dead).

𝐃𝐮𝐚𝐦𝐮𝐭𝐞𝐟 (Son of Horus, and from the New Kingdom onwards is depicted with the head of a jackal).

𝐖𝐞𝐩𝐰𝐚𝐰𝐞𝐭 (The opener of the ways, a wolf deity, thus the Greek name of Lycopolis, meaning city of wolves, he also accompanied the Pharaoh on hunts).

To be clear there is very little evidence of correlation between the religious beliefs and practises of ancient Egypt and the Indo European daughter cultures. Any connections would be at such an extreme place in deep time as to be negligible.

However, from an esoteric point of view it is deeply significant that wolf mythology has emerged in various distinct and unrelated cultures, Indo European, Native American, Ancient Egypt African shapeshifters, Indian Vratyas etc. Not just in terms of martial primacy, but also the wolf’s connection with the literal and/or metaphorical hunt. An anthropologist would argue that it is indicative of a recurrent human animistic belief, but a modern esoteric interpretation could be that the spirit of the Wolf Cult is indomitable.

#anubis #duamutef #wepwawet #cynocephali #cynocephali #wolf #wolves #wolfgod #wolfcult #ancientegypt #kemetic #animism

Cunomaglos -Celtic Wolf Lord

Cunomaglos is usually translated as Hound (or Dog) Lord, however a deeper linguistic dive into his name and his Apollonian parallels suggest something quite different.

In ancient times Dogs and wolves were linguistically almost synonymous. Tracing backwards we can see how the Irish word for hound

𝘤𝘶́ (see Cú Chulainn – Culann’s Hound) derives from the Primitive Irish 𝘤𝘶𝘯𝘢, itself from Proto-Celtic *𝘬𝘶̄ and ultimately from the theoretical Proto-Indo-European word for dog *𝘬́𝘸𝘰̄́.

The continental form of lupus, lykos, is rarely found in Celtic, save for the Ulkos coinage in the extinct Lepontic language from Cisalpine Gaul, where it is likely borrowed from the Graeco-Roman.

And then the Nettleton Shrub inscription dating from Roman era Wiltshire in the U.K.:

𝗱𝗲𝗼 𝗔𝗽𝗼𝗹𝗹𝗶𝗻𝗶 𝗖𝘂𝗻𝗼𝗺𝗮𝗴𝗹𝗼 𝗖𝗼𝗿𝗼𝘁𝗶𝗰𝗮 𝗜𝘂𝘁𝗶 𝗳𝗶𝗹(…)𝗶𝗮 𝘃(…)𝗼𝘁𝘂𝗺 𝘀(…)𝗼𝗹𝘃𝗶𝘁 𝗹(…)𝗶𝗯𝗲𝗻𝘀 𝗺(…)𝗲𝗿𝗶𝘁𝗼

𝘛𝘰 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘨𝘰𝘥 𝘈𝘱𝘰𝘭𝘭𝘰 𝘊𝘶𝘯𝘰𝘮𝘢𝘨𝘭𝘰𝘴, 𝘊𝘰𝘳𝘰𝘵𝘪𝘤𝘢, 𝘥𝘢𝘶𝘨𝘩𝘵𝘦𝘳 𝘰𝘧 𝘐𝘶𝘵𝘶𝘴, 𝘱𝘢𝘪𝘥 𝘩𝘦𝘳 𝘷𝘰𝘸, 𝘸𝘪𝘭𝘭𝘪𝘯𝘨𝘭𝘺, 𝘥𝘦𝘴𝘦𝘳𝘷𝘦𝘥𝘭𝘺

It seems from this that, Cunomaglus was used as a synonym for a local Britanno-Celtic god that was called Apollo on Latin inscriptions. The dedication above is for or by a woman with a Celtic name.

Apollo’s Wolf connections are well attested and it is highly plausible that the two were perceived as similar deities, making Cunomaglus far more likely to be Lord of Wolves/Wolf Lord.

#Cunomaglus #cunomaglos #nettleton #apollo #lykaios #wolf #Wolflord #cu #Cuna #CúChulainn #protoindoEuropean #wiltshire