“Wolfing”, Díberg and Fianna

“Brigandage that is the activity of organised bands of killers, was particularly abhorrent to the Church, and in the Old Arraí is associated with Druidism and satirising among the sins for which there could be no remission of penance. It was regarded as a Pagan practice and evidently had its own ritualistic code of conduct.” Díberg as defined by R. Sharpe.

O’Mulcronys Glossary describes the etymology of díberg as “dí-bi-arg – ‘non-be-hero’ for he is not reckoned with heroism like the hero of the fianna, for denial of God and and clientship with the Devil is not proper to heroism.”

This may very well be a later interpretative gloss by Christian scribes, as older sources make no distinction between those described as fiannas or díberg.

In the Togail Bruidne Da Derga, Connaire son of Eterscél, King of Tara, and the sons of Dond Désa, the féindid or fían-champion are fostered together. But when Connaire fulfils his destiny and succeeds his father as King of Tara – where taking of díberg is now taboo. Ultimately the three brothers continuing violent behaviour (díberg) in verses 19 and 20 is explicitly linked with Wolves:-

They took up díberg with the sons of nobles of Ireland around them. A hundred and fifty of them under instruction when they were wolfing in the territory of Connachta.

𝐓𝐨𝐠𝐚𝐢𝐥 𝐁𝐫𝐮𝐢𝐝𝐧𝐞 𝐃𝐚 𝐃𝐞𝐫𝐠𝐚

https://tinyurl.com/y4r9lwn5

#Fianna #diberg #díberg #oldIrish #fiannas #Connacht #Connachta #donddesa #TogailBruidneDaDerga #Connaire #Tara

Ancient Irish Wolf Warriors

𝐖𝐨𝐥𝐟 𝐂𝐮𝐥𝐭𝐬 𝐨𝐟 𝐀𝐧𝐜𝐢𝐞𝐧𝐭 𝐈𝐫𝐞𝐥𝐚𝐧𝐝

The warrior and dogs/wolves are often synonymous in ancient Irish lore. Particularly telling is an ancient Irish term for wolf, “mac tire” (literally translated as “son of the land”). It is plausible that this is connected with the even older concept of the adolescent Indo European Wolf Cult – especially as “vagabond warrior” the original meaning of “Mac Tire” gradually came to mean “wolf.”

In Ancient Ireland, as in Old Norse Culture, it was common for Kings and warriors to have canine aspects to their names. Cú Chulainn is perhaps the most well known taking the name “Culainn’s hound,” after killing the smith Culainns guard dog. The Fíanna were renowned for their hunting hounds.

The Cóir Anmann (The Fitness of Names) is a late medieval Irish tract where each verse/entry explains the meaning of an epithet associated with a character in early history or mythology. Verse 215 in particular contains a very revealing description

𝘓𝘢𝘪𝘨𝘯𝘦𝘤𝘩 𝘍𝘢́𝘦𝘭𝘢𝘥, 𝘵𝘩𝘢𝘵 𝘪𝘴, 𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘮𝘢𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘢𝘵 𝘶𝘴𝘦𝘥 𝘵𝘰 𝘴𝘩𝘪𝘧𝘵 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘰 𝘧𝘢́𝘦𝘭𝘢𝘥, 𝘪.𝘦. 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘧-𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘱𝘦𝘴. 𝘏𝘦 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘩𝘪𝘴 𝘰𝘧𝘧𝘴𝘱𝘳𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘢𝘧𝘵𝘦𝘳 𝘩𝘪𝘮 𝘶𝘴𝘦𝘥 𝘵𝘰 𝘨𝘰, 𝘸𝘩𝘦𝘯𝘦𝘷𝘦𝘳 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘱𝘭𝘦𝘢𝘴𝘦𝘥, 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘰 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘱𝘦𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴, 𝘢𝘯𝘥, 𝘢𝘧𝘵𝘦𝘳 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘤𝘶𝘴𝘵𝘰𝘮 𝘰𝘧 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴, 𝘬𝘪𝘭𝘭 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘥𝘴. 𝘞𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘧𝘰𝘳𝘦 𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘤𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘦𝘥 𝘓𝘢𝘪𝘨𝘯𝘦𝘤𝘩 𝘍𝘢́𝘦𝘭𝘢𝘥, 𝘧𝘰𝘳 𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘧𝘪𝘳𝘴𝘵 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘮 𝘵𝘰 𝘨𝘰 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘰 𝘢 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘧-𝘴𝘩𝘢𝘱𝘦.

“Fáelad” translates to “wolf-shape” or “wolfing” and this was also connected to the activity of warrior bands called díberga (marauders, brigands) in the Togail Bruidne Da Derga.

𝐂𝐨́𝐢𝐫 𝐀𝐧𝐦𝐚𝐧𝐧

http://www.maryjones.us/ctexts/fitness_of_names.html

𝐓𝐨𝐠𝐚𝐢𝐥 𝐁𝐫𝐮𝐢𝐝𝐧𝐞 𝐃𝐚 𝐃𝐞𝐫𝐠𝐚

https://en.m.wikisource.org/wiki/The_Destruction_of_Dá_Derga’s_Hostel

Image adapated from original by 𝘀𝗮𝗮𝗴𝗮𝗶 on deviantart

#Ireland #wolfcult #CúChulainn #IndoEuropean #TogailBruidneDaDerga #Fáelad #CóirAnmann #LaignechFáelad #díberga #mannerbund #männerbund #männerbunde

Wolves and Yggdrasil

In the Germanic tradition wolves were sacrificed to Odin/Wotan (Öld Icelandic “Óðinn”, Old High German “Wuotan”, Old English “Wōden”), who is associated with the Cosmic Tree; they were hung on ritual pillars called ‘wolf trees’: Old English “wulfheafod-treo” ‘wolf-head tree’, “waritreo” ‘wolf- criminal tree’, cognate to Old Saxon “waragtreo” ‘criminal tree’, Old Icelandic “vargtre” ‘wolf tree’.

In addition to such obvious correspondences, there are noteworthy combinations of ritual animals which were unlikely in the ecological context of the historical Germanic tribes: a wild boar and a lion on a Germanic shield from the fourth century B.C. (cf. the same combination in the Anittas text) and even the combination of leopard and lion with boar and bear attested in medieval Germanic tradition in the genre of dreams about wild animals (see Beck 1965:138-45, q.v. for a possible reflex of the same tradition in the Song of Roland). In other Indo-European traditions we find further correspondences both to individual elements of the set of Middle-World animals (especially cattle and hoofed animals such as deer, wild boars, and wild goats) and to the set as a whole.

Excerpted from “𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝐸𝑢𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑜 𝐸𝑢𝑟𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑛𝑠; 𝑎 𝑟𝑒𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑢𝑐𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐻𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐴𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑦𝑠𝑖𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝑎 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜 𝐿𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑢𝑠𝑔𝑒 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑎 𝑃𝑟𝑜𝑡𝑜 𝐶𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒” by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov (translated by Johanna Nichols)

Image is by 𝘀𝗮𝗮𝗴𝗮𝗶 on deviantart

#Wolf #wolves #indoEuropean #werewolf #wolfcult #oldicelandic #oldsaxon #oldenglish #oldhighgerman #linguistics #protoindoeuropean #songofroland #wildboar #cattleworship #gamkrelidze #ivanov

Latvian Werewolves

𝗩𝗶𝗹𝗸𝗮𝗰̌, 𝗩𝗶𝗹𝗸𝗮𝘁𝗶, 𝗩𝗶𝗹𝗸𝗮𝗰𝗶

Olaus Magnus, (1555) in his 𝐻𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑎 𝑑𝑒 𝐺𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑖𝑏𝑢𝑠 ‘𝑆𝑒𝑝𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑜𝑛𝑎𝑙𝑖𝑏𝑢𝑠’ (A Description of the Northern Peoples), mentions:-

“𝘐𝘯 𝘗𝘳𝘶𝘴𝘴𝘪𝘢, 𝘓𝘪𝘷𝘰𝘯𝘪𝘢, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘓𝘪𝘵𝘩𝘶𝘢𝘯𝘪𝘢, 𝘢𝘭𝘵𝘩𝘰𝘶𝘨𝘩 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘪𝘯𝘩𝘢𝘣𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘯𝘵𝘴 𝘴𝘶𝘧𝘧𝘦𝘳 𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘴𝘪𝘥𝘦𝘳𝘢𝘣𝘭𝘺 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘮 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘳𝘢𝘱𝘢𝘤𝘪𝘵𝘺 𝘰𝘧 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘳𝘰𝘶𝘨𝘩𝘰𝘶𝘵 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘺𝘦𝘢𝘳 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘢𝘵 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘴𝘦 𝘢𝘯𝘪𝘮𝘢𝘭𝘴 𝘳𝘦𝘯𝘥 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘪𝘳 𝘤𝘢𝘵𝘵𝘭𝘦, 𝘸𝘩𝘪𝘤𝘩 𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘴𝘤𝘢𝘵𝘵𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘥 𝘪𝘯 𝘨𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘵 𝘯𝘶𝘮𝘣𝘦𝘳𝘴 𝘵𝘩𝘳𝘰𝘶𝘨𝘩 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘰𝘰𝘥𝘴, 𝘸𝘩𝘦𝘯𝘦𝘷𝘦𝘳 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘢𝘺 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘷𝘦𝘳𝘺 𝘭𝘦𝘢𝘴𝘵, 𝘺𝘦𝘵 𝘵𝘩𝘪𝘴 𝘪𝘴 𝘯𝘰𝘵 𝘳𝘦𝘨𝘢𝘳𝘥𝘦𝘥 𝘣𝘺 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘮 𝘢𝘴 𝘴𝘶𝘤𝘩 𝘢 𝘴𝘦𝘳𝘪𝘰𝘶𝘴 𝘮𝘢𝘵𝘵𝘦𝘳 𝘢𝘴 𝘸𝘩𝘢𝘵 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘦𝘯𝘥𝘶𝘳𝘦 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘮 𝘮𝘦𝘯 𝘵𝘶𝘳𝘯𝘦𝘥 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘰 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴.”

“𝘖𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘧𝘦𝘢𝘴𝘵 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘕𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘷𝘪𝘵𝘺 𝘰𝘧 𝘊𝘩𝘳𝘪𝘴𝘵, 𝘢𝘵 𝘯𝘪𝘨𝘩𝘵, 𝘴𝘶𝘤𝘩 𝘢 𝘮𝘶𝘭𝘵𝘪𝘵𝘶𝘥𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴 𝘵𝘳𝘢𝘯𝘴𝘧𝘰𝘳𝘮𝘦𝘥 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘮 𝘮𝘦𝘯 𝘨𝘢𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳 𝘵𝘰𝘨𝘦𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳 𝘪𝘯 𝘢 𝘤𝘦𝘳𝘵𝘢𝘪𝘯 𝘴𝘱𝘰𝘵, 𝘢𝘳𝘳𝘢𝘯𝘨𝘦𝘥 𝘢𝘮𝘰𝘯𝘨 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘮𝘴𝘦𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘯 𝘴𝘱𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘥 𝘵𝘰 𝘳𝘢𝘨𝘦 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘸𝘰𝘯𝘥𝘳𝘰𝘶𝘴 𝘧𝘦𝘳𝘰𝘤𝘪𝘵𝘺 𝘢𝘨𝘢𝘪𝘯𝘴𝘵 𝘩𝘶𝘮𝘢𝘯 𝘣𝘦𝘪𝘯𝘨𝘴, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘵𝘩𝘰𝘴𝘦 𝘢𝘯𝘪𝘮𝘢𝘭𝘴 𝘸𝘩𝘪𝘤𝘩 𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘯𝘰𝘵 𝘸𝘪𝘭𝘥, 𝘵𝘩𝘢𝘵 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘯𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘷𝘦𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘴𝘦 𝘳𝘦𝘨𝘪𝘰𝘯𝘴 𝘴𝘶𝘧𝘧𝘦𝘳 𝘮𝘰𝘳𝘦 𝘥𝘦𝘵𝘳𝘪𝘮𝘦𝘯𝘵 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘮 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘴𝘦, 𝘵𝘩𝘢𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘥𝘰 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘮 𝘵𝘳𝘶𝘦 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘯𝘢𝘵𝘶𝘳𝘢𝘭 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴; 𝘧𝘰𝘳 𝘸𝘩𝘦𝘯 𝘢 𝘩𝘶𝘮𝘢𝘯 𝘩𝘢𝘣𝘪𝘵𝘢𝘵𝘪𝘰𝘯 𝘩𝘢𝘴 𝘣𝘦𝘦𝘯 𝘥𝘦𝘵𝘦𝘤𝘵𝘦𝘥 𝘣𝘺 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘮 𝘪𝘴𝘰𝘭𝘢𝘵𝘦𝘥 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘰𝘰𝘥𝘴, 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘣𝘦𝘴𝘪𝘦𝘨𝘦 𝘪𝘵 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘢𝘵𝘳𝘰𝘤𝘪𝘵𝘺, 𝘴𝘵𝘳𝘪𝘷𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘵𝘰 𝘣𝘳𝘦𝘢𝘬 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘥𝘰𝘰𝘳𝘴, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘦𝘷𝘦𝘯𝘵 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘪𝘳 𝘥𝘰𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘴𝘰, 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘥𝘦𝘷𝘰𝘶𝘳 𝘢𝘭𝘭 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘩𝘶𝘮𝘢𝘯 𝘣𝘦𝘪𝘯𝘨𝘴, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘦𝘷𝘦𝘳𝘺 𝘢𝘯𝘪𝘮𝘢𝘭 𝘸𝘩𝘪𝘤𝘩 𝘪𝘴 𝘧𝘰𝘶𝘯𝘥 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩𝘪𝘯.”

“𝘛𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘣𝘶𝘳𝘴𝘵 𝘪𝘯𝘵𝘰 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘣𝘦𝘦𝘳-𝘤𝘦𝘭𝘭𝘢𝘳𝘴, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳𝘦 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘺 𝘦𝘮𝘱𝘵𝘺 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘵𝘶𝘯𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘣𝘦𝘦𝘳 𝘰𝘳 𝘮𝘦𝘢𝘥, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘱𝘪𝘭𝘦 𝘶𝘱 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘦𝘮𝘱𝘵𝘺 𝘤𝘢𝘴𝘬𝘴 𝘰𝘯𝘦 𝘢𝘣𝘰𝘷𝘦 𝘢𝘯𝘰𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘳 𝘪𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘮𝘪𝘥𝘥𝘭𝘦 𝘰𝘧 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘤𝘦𝘭𝘭𝘢𝘳, 𝘵𝘩𝘶𝘴 𝘴𝘩𝘰𝘸𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘪𝘳 𝘥𝘪𝘧𝘧𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘯𝘤𝘦 𝘧𝘳𝘰𝘮 𝘯𝘢𝘵𝘶𝘳𝘢𝘭 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘨𝘦𝘯𝘶𝘪𝘯𝘦 𝘸𝘰𝘭𝘷𝘦𝘴. . . .”

“𝘉𝘦𝘵𝘸𝘦𝘦𝘯 𝘓𝘪𝘵𝘩𝘶𝘢𝘯𝘪𝘢, 𝘓𝘪𝘷𝘰𝘯𝘪𝘢, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘊𝘰𝘶𝘳𝘭𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘢 𝘤𝘦𝘳𝘵𝘢𝘪𝘯 𝘰𝘭𝘥 𝘳𝘶𝘪𝘯𝘦𝘥 𝘤𝘢𝘴𝘵𝘭𝘦. 𝘈𝘵 𝘵𝘩𝘪𝘴 𝘴𝘱𝘰𝘵 𝘤𝘰𝘯𝘨𝘳𝘦𝘨𝘢𝘵𝘦 𝘵𝘩𝘰𝘶𝘴𝘢𝘯𝘥𝘴, 𝘰𝘯 𝘢 𝘧𝘪𝘹𝘦𝘥 𝘰𝘤𝘤𝘢𝘴𝘪𝘰𝘯, 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘵𝘳𝘺 𝘵𝘩𝘦𝘪𝘳 𝘢𝘨𝘪𝘭𝘪𝘵𝘺 𝘪𝘯 𝘫𝘶𝘮𝘱𝘪𝘯𝘨. 𝘛𝘩𝘰𝘴𝘦 𝘸𝘩𝘰 𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘶𝘯𝘢𝘣𝘭𝘦 𝘵𝘰 𝘣𝘰𝘶𝘯𝘥 𝘰𝘷𝘦𝘳 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘸𝘢𝘭𝘭, 𝘢𝘴 𝘪𝘴 𝘰𝘧𝘵𝘦𝘯 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘤𝘢𝘴𝘦 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘧𝘢𝘵𝘵𝘦𝘴𝘵, 𝘢𝘳𝘦 𝘧𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘦𝘯 𝘶𝘱𝘰𝘯 𝘸𝘪𝘵𝘩 𝘴𝘤𝘰𝘶𝘳𝘨𝘦𝘴 𝘣𝘺 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘤𝘢𝘱𝘵𝘢𝘪𝘯𝘴 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘴𝘭𝘢𝘪𝘯.”

The earliest Latvian werewolf stories hint at a ritual disrobing and transformation.

The werewolf would leave his or her clothing and would be unable to turn back if somebody touched the clothes. There are conflicting reports on what forces they serve. According to one view, they “𝘴𝘦𝘳𝘷𝘦 𝘵𝘩𝘦 𝘥𝘦𝘷𝘪𝘭 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘨𝘶𝘢𝘳𝘥 𝘦𝘯𝘵𝘳𝘢𝘯𝘤𝘦𝘴 𝘵𝘰 𝘩𝘦𝘭𝘭 𝘥𝘶𝘳𝘪𝘯𝘨 𝘮𝘦𝘦𝘵𝘪𝘯𝘨𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘥𝘦𝘷𝘪𝘭𝘴 𝘢𝘯𝘥 𝘴𝘰𝘳𝘤𝘦𝘳𝘦𝘳𝘴”.

These raids could also be a distorted oral history of raiding ‘männerbunde’ warrior bands. The protection of sorcerers perhaps suggests guarding a priest class or non-Christian pagan group; an hypothesis even more likely if one considers another older legend of “good” Werewolves.

This myth tells of “𝘥𝘰𝘨𝘴 𝘰𝘧 𝘨𝘰𝘥“ who fight sorcerers trying to steal flowers of grains, thus ensuring good harvest. Almost certainly a reference to a now long lost fertility rite.

#Latvia #LeţmōVabāmō #Leţmō #LatvijasRepublika #Latvija #Vilkač #vilkati #vilkacis #werewolf

Free Ebook (Origin of The Werewolf Superstition)

The Origin of the Werewolf Superstition is a short book by Caroline Taylor Stewart, first published in 1909.

This short text is available in various online archives, however I have formatted into an easily printable edition.

I have also included English translations of the passages quoted in the notes, which are left untranslated in every other edition.

https://tinyurl.com/y98dbbkj

#werwolf #werewolf #werewolves #nativeamerican #wolf

She wolves and Wolf Goddesses

Last year I gave a 1 hour talk on Female Werewolves and Wolf Goddesses at the Heathen Women United Conference

Link to full audio – https://tinyurl.com/y3q5sfp3

#shewolfpack #shewolf #shewolves #dianagoddessofthehunt #dianagoddess #apollo #miletos #shewolvesofjulich #hecate #letogoddessofmotherhood #ruminagoddess #lupercalia #latonagoddess

Tribal Wolf Totem of Eurasia

“The dog and wolf cult is considered of the Turkic-Mongolian origin and the Turkic peoples even believed they were descendants of wolves. The Huns, Pechenegs, Khazars, Polovtses and other nomadic tribes venerated these animals. Those totemic images were employed in the best literature samples (the novel “The Scaffold” by Chyngyz Aitmatov).

“Myths and legends have been a part of Karachay-Balkar culture and folklore in the past. “As far back as the 19th century, Balkar women used to embroider a head of a wolf on the wedding banners, and sometimes they added another seven or nine (sacred numbers) images of the animal around the banner edges. The ancient Turks for various festival celebrations invented this tradition”.

Excerpted from:

Bolatova, A., Uzdenova, F., & Kerimova, R. (2019). “Totem Beliefs in Karachay-Balkar Folklore

and Literature.” Journal of History Culture and Art Research, 8(1), 223-227.

#KarachayBalkar #turkey #Aitmatov #mongolia #hun #polovtse #khazar #balkar #wolf #wolftotem #altai #folklore

Ancient Ritual Roles of Wolves

“In Old Hittite tradition, the wolf plays a special role, functioning as the em- bodiment of sacral qualities. In particular, wolves and wolf packs serve as an image of unity and omniscience. Thus King Hattusilis I (who reigned in the seventeenth century B.C.), addressing his council, urges his warrior subjects to unite ‘like a wolf pack’: ú-e-it-na-aš ma-a-an pa-an-gur. Dressing in wolf skins (cf. Hitt. LÚmeš UR.BAR.RA ‘wolf people’, i.e. people dressed in wolf skins, KBo XVI 68 I 13; 78 IV 9 et al.) conveys magical power, evidently conferring omniscience on the wearer, and may have been symbolic of a special juridical status. The formula for people turning into wolves, attested in zik-wa UR.BAR.RA-aš kištat ‘you have turned into a wolf’ of the Hittite Laws (§37), resembles Sanskrit vrko hí sáh ‘he is a wolf’, referring to a special juridical status in the wedding ritual of kidnapping the bride (Watkins 1970a).

Hittite wolf's head made of gold, from the Adana Archaeology Museum

“Parallels to these Hittite formulas and rituals can be found in a number of other early Indo-European traditions, which testifies to their Proto-Indo-European character and reconstructibility. In ancient Greek tradition, a person ‘becomes a wolf’ (lúkōi genésthai, Plato: Republic) in connection with a special ritual form of killing. This corresponds exactly to a Germanic formula: in an Old Icelandic peacemaking oath a murderer ‘shall be called a wolf’ (skal svá víða vargr heita): Ivanov 1975.”

Excerpted from “Indo-European and the Indo-Europeans: A reconstruction and historical analysis of a proto-language and a proto-culture.” by T. V. Gamkrelidze and V. V. Ivanov – Trans. J. Nichols. Published by Mouton de Gruyter.

#Hittite #KingHattusilis #Sanskrit #wolfskin #Wolf #Werewolf #Icelandic #oldicelandic #Varg #vargr #indoeuropean #protoindoeuropean #gamkrelidze #Ivanov #anatolia #linguistics

Wer-wolf Trials

Excerpt from Human Animals by Frank Hamel (1915)

Chapter VIII

“In Poitou the peasants have a curious expression, “courir la galipote,” which means to turn into a wer-wolf or other human-animal by night and chase prey through the woods. The galipote is the familiar or imp which the sorcerer has the power to send forth.

“In the dark ages sorcerers capable of this accomplishment were dealt with according to the law, and hundreds were sent to trial for practising black arts, being condemned, in most instances, to be burnt alive or broken on the wheel. One of the most notorious historical cases was that of Pierre Bourgot, who served the devil for two years and was tried by the Inquisitor-General Boin.

“Johannus Wierius gives in full the confession of Bourgot, otherwise called Great Peter, and of Michael Verding. The prisoners, who were accused of wicked practices in December, 1521, believed they had been transformed into wolves.

Full book here

https://tinyurl.com/y8r8gvr6

Estonian werewolf legends

Collected from the island of Saaremaa

© Made Balbat

Estonian Female Werewolf folklore including primary and secondary sources compiled by Merili Metsvahi.

Werewolf folklore and legends from Saaremaa, the largest Estonian Island, comprise a 7th of the entire corpus of the 1400 texts in the Estonian Folklore Archive. Only on this subcategory of folklore do we find significantly more tales of Female Werewolves…

Read the full paper here

https://tinyurl.com/yaj4ako4