Cunomaglos -Celtic Wolf Lord

Cunomaglos is usually translated as Hound (or Dog) Lord, however a deeper linguistic dive into his name and his Apollonian parallels suggest something quite different.

In ancient times Dogs and wolves were linguistically almost synonymous. Tracing backwards we can see how the Irish word for hound

๐˜ค๐˜ถฬ (see Cรบ Chulainn – Culannโ€™s Hound) derives from the Primitive Irish ๐˜ค๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข, itself from Proto-Celtic *๐˜ฌ๐˜ถฬ„ and ultimately from the theoretical Proto-Indo-European word for dog *๐˜ฌฬ๐˜ธ๐˜ฐฬ„ฬ.

The continental form of lupus, lykos, is rarely found in Celtic, save for the Ulkos coinage in the extinct Lepontic language from Cisalpine Gaul, where it is likely borrowed from the Graeco-Roman.

And then the Nettleton Shrub inscription dating from Roman era Wiltshire in the U.K.:

๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ผ ๐—”๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—น๐—น๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ถ ๐—–๐˜‚๐—ป๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—น๐—ผ ๐—–๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ ๐—œ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ถ ๐—ณ๐—ถ๐—น(โ€ฆ)๐—ถ๐—ฎ ๐˜ƒ(โ€ฆ)๐—ผ๐˜๐˜‚๐—บ ๐˜€(โ€ฆ)๐—ผ๐—น๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐˜ ๐—น(โ€ฆ)๐—ถ๐—ฏ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜€ ๐—บ(โ€ฆ)๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ผ

๐˜›๐˜ฐ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜จ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ˆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ฐ ๐˜Š๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜จ๐˜ญ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด, ๐˜Š๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ข, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ข๐˜ถ๐˜จ๐˜ฉ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ด, ๐˜ฑ๐˜ข๐˜ช๐˜ฅ ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ ๐˜ท๐˜ฐ๐˜ธ, ๐˜ธ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ญ๐˜บ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ท๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜บ

It seems from this that, Cunomaglus was used as a synonym for a local Britanno-Celtic god that was called Apollo on Latin inscriptions. The dedication above is for or by a woman with a Celtic name.

Apolloโ€™s Wolf connections are well attested and it is highly plausible that the two were perceived as similar deities, making Cunomaglus far more likely to be Lord of Wolves/Wolf Lord.

#Cunomaglus #cunomaglos #nettleton #apollo #lykaios #wolf #Wolflord #cu #Cuna #CรบChulainn #protoindoEuropean #wiltshire

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